The role nutrition plays in the development, maintenance and management of chronic pain. Part 3: How?

 

Part 3: How can you improve your nutrition?  What daily steps can you take?

In part 1 of this series, we looked at the last decade of clinical research said in regards to the role nutrition plays in the development, maintenance and management of chronic pain.  The evidence suggests that diet contributes to pain sensitivity, pain interference and pain maintenance, due to the impact it has on inflammation and oxidation.  The evidence suggests that changing diet may lead to a reduction in symptoms and better pain management.

In part 2 of this series, we explored what makes good nutrition, and how our bodies utilise the food we eat to promote our health and wellbeing.  This article explored how good nutrition is not just eating certain foods and avoiding others, but also how our bodies utilise that food, and how certain lifestyle factors (such as stress, sleep and activity) contribute to this process.  It also explored the many aspects of weight management, and how it is not just a case of eating less and exercising more.

In this article, we will pull everything we have learned together into the daily steps you can take to improve your pain, health and well-being through diet and lifestyle, according to the research.

 

What changes can you make to improve your nutrition, pain, health and well-being?

Beneath is our guide to improving your nutrition, pain, health and well-being, based on current research.

 

 

Fresh is best

Eating foods that are less processed and in-season ensures you get the highest nutritional value and reduce the risk of added sugar, salt and saturated fats (which are often added to prepared and store bought foods).  Processed foods have a higher risk of causing inflammation and oxidation, both of which are detrimental to health, well-being and pain. Learn more about this research here.

 

Tip 1:  Read the labels on store bought sauces, and buy the herbs, spices and ingredients separately to make your own.  You can often freeze these in an ice cube container to make it more convenient.  This site might help you on your way, it lists 40 sauce recipes you can make from scratch.

 

 

Eat the rainbow

Fruit, vegetables, legumes and seeds, all offer a wide variety of vitamins, minerals and nutrients which promote health and well-being.  Each colour is representative of the nutritional value held.  By eating a wide variety of differently coloured foods, you ensure get a well balanced diet each day.  Learn more about this here.

  • Red:  High in phytochemical including lycopene and anthoocyanins.  Reduces the risk of some cancers, diabetes, heart disease, strokes, age-related eye issues.
  • Orange/Yellow:  High in carotenoids.  Promotes skin health, immunity, healthy joints and eyes and reduces the risk of some cancers and heart disease.
  • Green:  High in antioxidants and phytonutrients.  Promotes healing, digestion, immunity and energy restoration and reduces risk of some cancers.
  • Purple/Blue:  High in anthocyanin and resveratrol.  Promotes longevity and memory, reduces risk of cell damage and inflammation, Alzheimer’s and some cancers.
  • White/Brown:  High in anthoxanthins, allicin and quercetin.  Balances hormones, keeps bones strong, reduces risk of some cancers, inflammation, cholesterol and heart disease.

Eating the rainbow also ensures you get plenty of dietary fibre (which stimulates the growth of good gut bacteria, assist with digestion and reduce the risk of opioid-induced constipation) and polyphenols (which are a potent antioxidant which can reduce the risk of oxidative stress and inflammation, both common with chronic pain).  Learn more about this research here.

 

Tip 2: Every time you shop, make sure you have at least one fruit, herb, spice or vegetable from each colour.  This will make it easier to prepare rainbow meals when you get home.

 

 

Try new foods

New foods introduce new gut bacteria into our digestive system.  This is because the bacteria that grows within us, are fed by the food we eat.  Each time we introduce new healthy foods into our diet, we promote a wider diversity of gut bacteria, which is associated with improved immunity, weight management, sleep and pain.  Learn more about this research here.

 

Tip 3: Every time you shop, pick up one new fresh food you have not tried before.  This could be a purple carrot, different coloured spinach or pumpkin, baby cucumber or kiwiberry (small kiwi fruit).  By changing the colour from what you normally pick, it makes it easier to replace it in meals you are used to cooking.

 

 

Hydrate

50-75% of our body is made up of water, water is vital for every cell in our body.  Dehydration has been linked to increased pain sensitivity and risk of opioid-induced constipation, so ensuring adequate water intake each day is important for managing pain.  Learn more about this research here.

 

Tip 4:  If drinking water is not something you enjoy doing, try adding fresh fruit or herbs to your drink bottle.  This site offers 23 recipes for naturally infused water.

 

 

Increase fibre

Fibre is essential for digestion, the growth of gut bacteria, and reducing the risk of opioid-induced constipation.  Fibre has the added benefit of keeping you full for longer, which can help curb your appetite between meals.  Learn more about this research here.

 

Tip 5: Oats and legumes are a great source of fibre.  Starting your day with bircher muesli or porridge and then adding legumes into your salad or pasta sauce, can be some simple ways to increase your fibre each day.  Another great alternative is to make your pizza base or bread from scratch using whole grains.

 

 

Increase whole grains

Whole grains are high in fibre and contain many non-digestible carbohydrates which are broken down in the large intestine and promote the growth of different gut bacteria. Eating whole grains can keep you full for longer, reduce the risk of heart disease and inflammation (learn more about the research here).

Whole grains also allow your Gut Microbiome to produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) which are responsible for provision energy to our intestinal cells and our body. They are also responsible for maintaining the integrity of the gastrointestinal tract, which is important for reducing the risk of infections or inflammation (learn more here)

 

Tip 6:  Try swapping your current bread for whole grain.  Beneath is a quick list of some wholegrain alternatives:

  • Bread:Helga’s wholemeal grain, Burgen wholemeal & seeds, Burgen wholegrain and oats, Schwobbs wholegrain, Tip top 9 grain (wholemeal), Bakers Delight Capeseed (wholegrain).
  • Gluten Free Bread: Abbott’s gluten free mixed seeds and gluten free soy and linseed, Helga’s gluten free.
  • Low FODMAP Bread: Bakers Delight LO-FO loaf, Helga’s lower carb 5 seed (low GI).

 

 

Increase good fats, decrease bad

Increasing your levels of “good fats” (HDL: Monosaturated and polyunsaturated) is beneficial for reducing the risk of heart disease and stroke.  Increasing good fats can also reduce inflammation and improve immunity.  Learn more about this research here,

Increasing your levels of dietary fats (omega-3, -6 and -9) found in oily fish (salmon, mackerel, sardines and anchovies) and nuts and seeds (chia seeds, walnuts and flaxseeds) can be a beneficial way to reduce inflammation and increase antimicrobial and antioxidant activity, which is associated with chronic pain.  Learn more about this research here.

 

Tip 7:  Creating your own salad dressing or seed mix for your breakfast or salads, is a convenient and quick way to increase your good fats each day.

 

 

Improve your gut health

Your gut is home to trillions of bacteria, viruses and fungi, known as the microbiome.  Your microbiome is extremely important for your immune system, heart, weight, sleep, stress levels and pain.  Improving your gut health, improves your all-round health and well-being.  Eating a wide variety of fresh foods, ensures a wide variety of Gut Microbiome.  To learn more about improving your gut health visit here.

 

Tip 8: The quickest way to improve your gut health is to increase your fibre intake and introduce more fruits, vegetables and legumes into your diet each day (these are filled with Prebiotics and Probiotics).

But if you would like to be a little more adventurous, try adding fermented foods into your diet (these contain prebiotics which support good gut bacteria and gut health).

Some fermented foods include: yoghurt, kefir (a fermented probiotic milk drink), sauerkraut, tempeh (a fermented soybean product), kimchi (a fermented, spicy Korean dish), miso (a fermented soybean product), kombucha (a fermented black or green tea), gherkins (a pickled cucumber), natty (a fermented soybean product), and some cheese products (mozzarella, gouda, cheddar and cottage).

 

 

If you are going to pick a diet – choose the Mediterranean Diet

The Mediterranean diet originates from Italy and Greece in the 1960.  It has been widely researched due to the lower risk of many chronic “lifestyle” diseases associated with this diet.  Recently it has also been shown to improve gut health, improve sleep quality and quantity, improve weight loss, prevent heart disease and strokes, reduce risk of type 2 diabetes, improve mental health, arthritis, inflammation and chronic pain.

People who eat a higher proportion of plant-based foods, tend to have lower risks of obesity, inflammation and cholesterol (learn more about the research here). The Mediterranean diet has been shown to have the right combination of plant-based foods, polyphenols, lean meat, good fats and oily fish for improving gut health (learn more here).  Beneath is an overview of the Mediterranean diet:

  • Eat
    • Vegetables and Fruit – should make up largest portion of your plate, eat the rainbow.
    • Nuts and seeds – add a handful to your diet each day.  Almonds, walnuts, macadamia nuts, hazelnuts, cashews, sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds, etc.
    • Legumes – add into meals as a meat substitute. Beans, peas, lentils, pulses, peanuts, chickpeas, etc.
    • Whole grains – eat daily.  Whole oats, brown rice, rye, barley, corn, buckwheat, whole wheat, whole-grain bread and pasta.
    • Fish and seafood – eat twice a week. Salmon, sardines, trout, tuna, mackerel, shrimp, oysters, clams, crab, mussels, etc.
    • Poultry and eggs – eat twice a week. Chicken, turkey, duck etc.
    • Dairy – eat daily in moderation. Fresh cheese, greek yogurt, etc.
    • Herbs and spices –  add into all meals.  Ginger, garlic, basil, mint, rosemary, sage, nutmeg, cinnamon, pepper, turmeric etc.
    • Healthy fats – extra virgin olive oil, olives and avocados.

 

  • Drink
    • Water – main drink of choice, 1.5-2.5 litres per day.
    • Red Wine – moderate amounts around 1 glass per day.
    • Coffee and tea – black with no sugar is best.

 

  • Avoid
    • Added sugar – soft drinks, lollies, ice cream, table sugar, packaged foods and takeaway.
    • Refined grains – white bread, pasta made with refined wheat, etc.
    • Trans fats – margarine, packaged foods and takeaway.
    • Refined oils – soybean oil, canola oil, cottonseed oil and others.
    • Processed meat – Processed sausages, hot dogs, etc.
    • Highly processed foods – anything bought in a bottle or packaged foods and takeaway.

Tip 9:  When changing your diet it is always easy to:

  • ADD: start with introducing something new into your diet for a month
  • SWAP: then start swapping foods to healthier choices for a monthly
  • REMOVE: then lastly removing the unhealthy choices entirely from your diet.

The reason changing diets is so challenging is our brain tends to fixate on things we enjoy, that we deprive ourselves of; and our Gut Microbiome lives on the food we eat, so removing this from our diet means their food source is lost.  Gently transitioning over a couple of months reduces the cravings associated with a diet shift.  Learn more about this here.

 

 

Avoid sugar, salt and saturated fats

Sugar, salt and saturated fats have been linked to the development and maintenance of many chronic diseases due to their role in increasing inflammation and oxidation.

  • Refined sugar is primarily derived from plants such as sugar cane and added to cakes, biscuits, soft drinks, packaged foods and takeaway.
  • Saturated fats are solid when at room temperature and found in palm oil, coconut milk and cream, cooking margarine, fatty-cuts of meat, processed meats, takeaway and many packaged snack foods.
  • Salt is found in packaged or bottled foods, pre-made sauces and spice mixes, table salt and takeaway.

 

Tip 10: Making meals at home from fresh ingredients and limiting the use of prepackaged mixes and sauces, reduces the risk of unknowingly adding sugar, salt or saturated fats.  Trying to increase the ratio of home cooked meals per week is a great step in the right direction.

 

 

Move more

Physical activity plays a role in weight management; emotional and mental health; physical health including sleep, pain and disability.  The old sayings “if you don’t move it, you lose it” and “motion is lotion” are both true when it comes to chronic pain.  Physical activity “when applied within appropriate  parameters (frequency, duration and intensity)” significantly improves pain and the pain cycle.  Physical activity also reduces metainflammation, which is linked to central sensitisation, in the context of weight loss and obesity (link).  To learn more about moving more visit here.

Physical activity also plays a role in our weight management and the diversity and functional capacity of our gut bacteriaStudies have shown that exercise increases in the number of beneficial microbial species and enhances short-chain fatty acid production and carbohydrate metabolism.

Studies have shown how increasing the level of exercise leads to a greater diversity in Firmicutes (involved in fermentation), an increase of F. prausnitzii and Roseburia hominis, associated with fueling cells of the gut lining, helping maintain its integrity and reducing inflammation, and an increase of Akkermansia muciniphila associated with metabolism and healthy weight. 

 

Tip 11: Do a little often and do something you enjoy.  When you enjoy what you are doing and it is easy to add it into your life and there is more likelihood of doing it each day.

Moving more does not need to be done in a gym, it can be any activity that gets your heart and breathing a little faster.  Remember, anything is better than nothing.

 

 

Sleep better

Sleep plays an important role in weight management; emotional and mental health; physical health including sleep, pain and disability.

Sleep has been shown to strongly correlate with hormonal and metabolic processes; hormones which impact on appetite and hunger; meal choice and eating behaviours; the function of the glymphatic nervous (responsible for removing waste products from our CNS); and gut microbiome.

Sleep plays a role in reducing inflammation and insulin resistance, as well as pain sensitivity, the duration of painful episodes and pain intensity.  To learn more about improving your sleep visit here.

 

Tip 12:  Our body craves routine, so try to stick to a consistent bedtime and wake up time each day; and if you find yourself lying a wake during the night, get out of bed until you are tired again, rather than lying their worrying about not sleeping.  To learn more strategies for improving your sleep visit here.

 

 

Stress less

Stress has been shown to directly impact on obesity, meal choices, quantity of food eaten, and the distribution of adipose “fat” tissue.  The chronicity of stress and pain can both contribute to high levels of cortisol and adrenaline, which can affect metabolism and weight.  Often in situations of prolonged stress and chronic pain, the initial, most effective weight management strategies come from stress-management.

Some stress management strategies include: deep breathing exercises (our breath is the only way to tap into our sympathetic nervous system), relaxation activities(such as meditation, yoga and Tai Chi), lower intensity exercises (such as hydrotherapy, walking, resistance training and stretching) and small, regular, healthy meals.  These activities reduce the positive feedback loop – “fight or flight” – created in our body.  To learn more about stress management techniques visit here.

 

Tip 13: Try introducing a deep breathing exercise when you are sitting at traffic lights or watching commercials, or try being present during your morning shower.  Practicing mindfulness and deep rebating can retrain your brain, reduce your stress levelsimprove your mood and reduce pain levels.

 

 

Conclusion

Nutrition plays an important role in managing chronic pain, reducing the risk of sleep and mood disturbances, managing weight and preventing many diet-related diseases. Despite knowing this, changing our diets are still an incredibly challenging step to take.

Our tips for changing diet include:

Know why you are doing it. Write out exactly why you want to change. Write out in detail how you feel right now. This helps to keep you motivated when you feel like giving up. Every time you think about giving up, read what you wrote.

Keep it simple. Every time you succeed at something you set for yourself, you build self-efficacy and motivation. So start with something you know you will knock out of the park – a glass of water first thing in the morning – and do it for a month. Once you succeed, you build a new standard for yourself and what you can accomplish.

Focus on health. Make your primary goal be about improving your health, not on a particular size or shape. Then focus on how you feel in your body. Do I feel healthy? Do I feel strong? Am I sleeping better? Is my mood better? Let these measurements be how you measure success.  Don’t let the scales become your measure of self-worth.

Focus on future you. Making changes to our lifestyle can be incredibly challenging, this is partly because short term us “the borrower” often undermines long term us “the dealer”.

“The borrower” focuses on feeling good in the moment. They are all about quick fixes, avoiding anything uncomfortable. They borrow energy, happiness, time and finances from “the dealer”.  “The borrower” is the one that convinces you not to stick to a diet because you’ve had a tough week, or just to have one more alcoholic drink because life has been tough lately.

“The dealer” is the one that deals with the bad decisions of yesterday. They are often filled with regret and remorse for sabotaging their own happiness.  “The dealer” wakes with a hangover, or is exhausted from going to bed late, or is the one who receives “bad news” from the doctor because of choices that “the borrower” has been made.

So how do you change this cycle?  Perhaps, by thinking about how “long term us” will feel if we keep doing what we are doing? Perhaps, by bringing our future unhappiness forward? Perhaps by being uncomfortable now, to be happier and healthier later?

Sometimes, we need to pause and think “is this short-term quick fix in our long-term best interests?” because when we keep making the same decisions over and over, we are accepting how things are now, and how they will be the same, or worse in the future.  Any different decision we make will lead us in a different direction and change our current reality.

Add, replace and remove. Adding something to your life is easier than taking something away.  Why?  Because as soon as your brain clocks you are depriving yourself of something it starts to crave it and obsess about it – this is why a lot of diets fail.

So instead of deleting things from your life, start by adding 1 simple nutritious addition to your life – drinking a glass of water with every meal; adding different coloured vegetables to your meals; adding sunlight to your lunch break – then as your confidence improves, you can start to replace old habits with new ones; and finally when you know can manage it, you remove the remaining unhealthy habits.

Remember, introducing any “healthy” habits, is an act of care towards yourself that should be celebrated. When we care for ourselves we also slow the procession of the pain cycle and we steer our life in a healthy direction. We take control of the part of the journey we have control of and potentially start to see a new cycle begin: feeling better about ourselves, sleeping better, moving more, eating better and less pain.

If you would like help on your journey to changing your nutrition and lifestyle, click here to find an accredited dietitian near you. For a full list of the references used in this article visit here.

 

Learn more

Nutrition and Diet Resources

  • 2020 European Year for the Prevention of Pain Factsheet: Nutrition and Chronic Pain Factsheet
  • Webinar: IASP Webinar: Why, what and how of nutrition for people experiencing chronic pain (link)
  • Website: University of Newcastle: Free Healthy Eating Quiz, Report and Recommendations (link)
  • Article: NPC: 12 Quick Tips for Improving Your Nutrition (link)
  • Article: NPC: Guide to Healthy Diet and Weight Management (link)
  • Article: PPM: A Diet for Patients with Chronic Pain (link)
  • Article: NHS: Improving health and fitness (link)
  • Factsheet: HNEHealth: Nutrition and pain (link)
  • Factsheet: ACI: Pain: Lifestyle and nutrition (link)
  • Website: Eat for Health (link)
  • Website: The Australian Dietary Guidelines (link)
  • Website: The Australian Healthy Food Guide (link)
  • Article: Health Engine: Pain and Nutrition (link)
  • Article: Dietician’s Australia: Smart eating for you (link)
  • Article: My Joint Pain: Healthy Eating and Arthritis (link)
  • Article: My Joint Pain: Nutrition (link)
  • Article: Find an Accredited Practising Dietitian (link)
  • Article: Back to Basics: Recipes (link)
  • Article: AIHW: Food and Nutrition (link)
  • Article: NHMRC: Nutrition (link)
  • Article: Healthdirect: A balanced Diet (link)
  • Article: IPSI: Diet & Pain: Part 1: Which diet works best for pain (link)
  • Article: IPSI: Diet & Pain: Part 2: Which diet works best for pain (link)
  • Article: Future Medicine: Diet therapy in the management of chronic pain: better diet less pain? (link)

 

Gut Health Resources

  • Article: NPC: 12 Quick Tips for Improving Gut Health (link)
  • Article: NPC: Gut Health and Pain – Part 1: Know Your Gut (link)
  • Article: NPC: Gut Health and Pain – Part 2: The Gut-Brain Connection (link)
  • Article: NPC: Gut Health and Pain – Part 3: Your Gut and Stress (link)
  • Article: NPC: Gut Health and Pain – Part 4: Changing your Gut Health (link)
  • Article: Harvard Health: Can diet heal chronic pain? (link)
  • Article: Science Daily: Gut bacteria associated with chronic pain for first time (link)
  • Article: PPM: Gut Health: A look inside reveals what you eat can affect your pain (link)
  • Article: IPSI: Chronic Pain Treatment by Healing the Gut (link)
  • Article: PBHC: The Gut-Brain Connection to Chronic Pain, Anxiety and Depression (link)

 

Smoking Resources

  • Factsheet: Australian Government: How to quit smoking (link)
  • Factsheet: NSW Health: Smoking, your health and quitting (link)
  • Article: NPC: Benefits of Quitting Smoking (link)
  • Article: Pain Science: Smoking and Chronic Pain (link)
  • Article: Cancer Council: Quit Smoking (link)
  • Article: The Lung Foundation: Quitting Smoking (link)

 

Alcohol Resources

  • Factsheet: ACI: Standard Drinks (link)
  • Website: Drinkwise (link)
  • Website: Alcoholics Anonymous (link)
  • Article: NIAAA: The Complex Relationship Between Alcohol and Pain (link)

 

Recreational Drugs Resources

  • Article: NSW State Library: Drug Information (link)
  • Website: Reach Out: Addiction (link)
  • Website: Alcohol and Drug Foundation (link)

 

Free Worksheets

  • Booklet: Guide to Nutrition for Chronic Pain (link)
  • Worksheet: Weekly Food Diary (link)
  • Worksheet: My Health Plan (link)
  • Worksheet: Weekly Food Diary (link)

 

 

Other References

  • Journal Article:  Dietary Polyphenols—Important Non-Nutrients in the Prevention of Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases. A Systematic Review (article here)
  • Journal Article:  Curcumin Could Prevent the Development of Chronic Neuropathic Pain in Rats with Peripheral Nerve Injury (article here)
  • Journal Article:  Omega-3 Fatty Acids (Fish Oil) as an Anti-Inflammatory: An Alternative to Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs for Discogenic Pain (article here)
  • Journal Article: Effects of soy diet on inflammation-induced primary and secondary hyperalgesia in rat (article here)
  • Journal Article: Diet-induced obesity: dopamine transporter function, impulsivity and motivation (article here)
  • Journal Article:  Neuroinflammation and central sensitisation in chronic and widespread pain (article here)
  • Journal Article:  Oxidative Stress: Harms and Benefits for Human Health (article here)
  • Journal Article: Nutritional intervention in chronic pain: an innovative way of targeting central nervous system sensitization? (article here)
  • Article:  ICP: What is central sensitisation (link here)
  • Journal Article:  Neuroinflammation: The devil is in the details (article here)
  • Journal Article: Eubiosis and dysbiosis: the two sides of the microbiota (article here)
  • Article: Our gut microbiome is always changing; it’s also remarkably stable (link here)
  • Book: Gut Health and Probiotics. The science behind the hype. Jenny Tschiesche
  • Book: Rushing Woman’s Syndrome. The impact of a never ending to-do list on your health. Dr Libby Weaver
  • Book: Gut. The inside story of our body’s most under-rated organ. Giulia Enders
  • Book: The mind-gut connection. How the hidden conversation within our bodies impacts on our mood, our choices, and our overall health. Emeran Mayer, MD
  • Journal Article: The role of gut microbiota in immune homeostasis and autoimmunity (article here)
  • Journal Article: The Role of Gut Microbiota in Intestinal Inflammation with Respect to Diet and Extrinsic Stressors (article here)
  • Journal Article: Gut microbiota functions: metabolism of nutrients and other food components (article here)
  • Journal Article: Stress and the gut microbiota-brain axis (article here)
  • Journal Article: The gut microbiome: Relationships with disease and opportunities for therapy (article here)
  • Journal Article: Neurotransmitter modulation by the gut microbiota (article here)
  • Journal Article: Human nutrition, the gut microbiome and the immune system (article here)
  • Journal Article: The microbiome: A key regulator of stress and neuroinflammation (article here)
  • Journal Article: Current Understanding of Gut Microbiota in Mood Disorders: An Update of Human Studies (article here)
  • Journal Article: Role of gut microbiota in brain function and stress-related pathology (article here)
  • Journal Article: Intestinal permeability – a new target for disease prevention and therapy (article here)
  • AUSMED E-Learning: Gut Microbiota Health and Wellbeing (link here)
  • Journal Article: A review of lifestyle factors that contribute to important pathways associated with major depression: Diet, sleep and exercise (article here)
  • Journal Article: ‘Gut health’: a new objective in medicine? (article here)
  • Journal Article: Impact of the gut microbiota on inflammation, obesity, and metabolic disease (article here)
  • Journal Article: Is eating behavior manipulated by the gastrointestinal microbiota? Evolutionary pressures and potential mechanisms (link here)
  • Journal Article: Effects of Diet on Gut Microbiota Profile and the Implications for Health and Disease (link here)
  • Journal Article: The gut microbiome: Relationships with disease and opportunities for therapy (link here)
  • Article: Hunter-gatherers’ seasonal gut-microbe diversity loss echoes our permanent one (link here)
  • Journal Article: Fiber-Mediated Nourishment of Gut Microbiota Protects against Diet-Induced Obesity by Restoring IL-22-Mediated Colonic Health (link here)
  • Journal Article: The hot air and cold facts of dietary fibre (link here)
  • Journal Article: Commensal bacteria and essential amino acids control food choice behavior and reproduction (link here)
  • Journal Article: Eubiosis and dysbiosis: the two sides of the microbiota (article here)
  • Article: Our gut microbiome is always changing; it’s also remarkably stable (link here)
  • Journal Article: The role of gut microbiota in immune homeostasis and autoimmunity (article here)
  • Journal Article: The Role of Gut Microbiota in Intestinal Inflammation with Respect to Diet and Extrinsic Stressors (article here)
  • Journal Article: Gut microbiota functions: metabolism of nutrients and other food components (article here)
  • Journal Article: Stress and the gut microbiota-brain axis (article here)
  • Journal Article: The gut microbiome: Relationships with disease and opportunities for therapy (article here)
  • Journal Article: Neurotransmitter modulation by the gut microbiota (article here)
  • Journal Article: Human nutrition, the gut microbiome and the immune system (article here)
  • Journal Article: The microbiome: A key regulator of stress and neuroinflammation (article here)
  • Journal Article: Current Understanding of Gut Microbiota in Mood Disorders: An Update of Human Studies (article here)
  • Journal Article: Role of gut microbiota in brain function and stress-related pathology (article here)
  • Journal Article: Intestinal permeability – a new target for disease prevention and therapy (article here)
  • AUSMED E-Learning: Gut Microbiota Health and Wellbeing (link here)
  • Journal Article: A review of lifestyle factors that contribute to important pathways associated with major depression: Diet, sleep and exercise (article here)
  • Journal Article: ‘Gut health’: a new objective in medicine? (article here)
  • Journal Article: Impact of the gut microbiota on inflammation, obesity, and metabolic disease (article here)
  • Journal Article: The Gut Microbiome as a Major Regulator of the Gut-Skin Axis (link here)
  • Journal Article: Dietary Modulation of the Human Colonic Microbiota: Introducing the Concept of Prebiotics (link here)
  • Journal Article: Prebiotics: why definitions matter (link here)
  • Journal Article: Expert consensus document: The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) consensus statement on the definition and scope of prebiotics (link here)
  • Article: ISAPP: Prebiotics (link here)
  • Journal Article: Clinical uses of probiotics (link here)
  • Journal Article: Six-week Consumption of a Wild Blueberry Powder Drink Increases Bifidobacteria in the Human Gut (link here)
  • Journal Article: Effects of Almond and Pistachio Consumption on Gut Microbiota Composition in a Randomised Cross-Over Human Feeding Study (link here)
  • Journal Article: Impact of Increasing Fruit and Vegetables and Flavonoid Intake on the Human Gut Microbiota (link here)
  • Journal Article: Effect of Apple Intake on Fecal Microbiota and Metabolites in Humans (link here)
  • Journal Article: Prebiotic Effect of Fruit and Vegetable Shots Containing Jerusalem Artichoke Inulin: A Human Intervention Study (link here)
  • Journal Article: Dietary effects on human gut microbiome diversity (link here)
  • Journal Article: The Role of Gut Microbiota in Intestinal Inflammation with Respect to Diet and Extrinsic Stressors (article here)
  • Journal Article: Gut microbiota functions: metabolism of nutrients and other food components (article here)
  • Journal Article: Stress and the gut microbiota-brain axis (article here)
  • Journal Article: Neurotransmitter modulation by the gut microbiota (article here)
  • Journal Article: Current Understanding of Gut Microbiota in Mood Disorders: An Update of Human Studies (article here)
  • AUSMED E-Learning: Gut Microbiota Health and Wellbeing (link here)
  • Journal Article: A review of lifestyle factors that contribute to important pathways associated with major depression: Diet, sleep and exercise (article here)
  • Journal Article: ‘Gut health’: a new objective in medicine? (article here)
  • Journal Article: Impact of the gut microbiota on inflammation, obesity, and metabolic disease (article here)
  • Journal Article: The association of sleep and pain: An update and a path forward (article here)
  • Journal Article: The Important Role of Sleep in Metabolism (article here)
  • Journal Article: Role of Sleep and Sleep Loss in Hormonal Release and Metabolism (article here)

 

Images courtesy of Unsplash
Written by Aimee Carter